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MILLER AND HARLEY ZOOLOGY BOOK 4TH EDITION PDF >> READ ONLINE. Great college book, and my guess is that they will have this book in college. The Book Provided By The Smart Science. Zoology: Miller−Harley: Zoology, Fifth Edition I. Biological Principles 2. Cells, Users of the fourth edition will quickly notice that the ﬁfth edition of Zoology is pages shorter. by download PDF Zoology Miller Harley 4th Edition book you are also motivated to Miller Harley Zoology 4th inmigipywha.cf | Pdf Book Manual.
Great college book, and my guess is that they will have this book in college, except maybe by then there would be a higher edition. Recommended for students who want to learn zoology and scholars. Overall, if you love animals and find them fascinating, and are looking for a job in zoology in your future, zoology is a great way to go.
The new 7th edition of Zoology continues to offer students an introductory general zoology text that is manageable in size and adaptable to a variety of course formats.
It is a principles-oriented text written for the non-majors or the combined course, presented at the freshman and sophomore level. Zoology is organized into three parts. Zoology Miller Harley 8th Edition Download. Miller and John P. Part One covers the common life processes, including cell and tissue structure and function, the genetic basis of evolution, and the evolutionary and ecological principles that unify all life.
ISBN Book Condition: An introductory general zoology text that is manageable in size and adaptable to a variety of course formats. All of these factors were carefully considered in the revision of this latest edition of Zoology. In most cases, these readings depict the plight of a selected animal species. In other cases, they depict broader ecosystem issues, or questions re- lated to preserving genetic diversity within species.
In all cases, the purpose of these Wildlife Alerts is to increase student aware- ness of the need to preserve animal habits and species. Zoology is organized into three parts. Part One covers the common life processes, including cell and tissue structure and function, the genetic basis of evolution, and the evolutionary and ecological principles that unify all life.
Part Two is the survey of animals, emphasizing evolutionary and ecological relationships, aspects of animal organization that unite major animal phyla, and animal adaptations. All of the chapters in Part Two have been carefully updated, including new examples and photographs.
As in previ- ous editions, the remaining survey chapters 8—22 include clado- grams to depict evolutionary relationships, full-color artwork and photographs, and lists of phylum characteristics.
Part Three covers animal form and function using a com- parative approach. This approach includes descriptions and full- color artwork that depict the evolutionary changes in the struc- ture and function of selected organ systems. Part Three includes an appropriate balance between invertebrate and vertebrate de- scriptions.
Most of these readings feature a particular species, but some feature a larger ecosystem concern. The con- cept of dominance is explained in molecular terms. New information is also presented on the evolution of terrestrialism in vertebrates. The usefulness of these supplements is 2.
This contains approximately 50 multiple-choice questions for each chapter. Miller, is an excellent corollary to the text and in- corporates many learning aids.
A Laboratory Resource Guide, available within the Online Learning Center, provides information about materials and procedures, and answers to worksheet questions that accompany the lab exercises. This valuable resource also includes self-quizzing to help students review each topic. Its breadth and depth go beyond our Online Learning Center to offer six major areas of up-to-date and rel- evant information: The following features are now available to professors: Short on time?
Let us do the work. Our McGraw-Hill ser- vice team is ready to build your PageOut website, and now greatly enhanced with the availability of both online and printed resources. This content-rich website is located at www. Energy and Enzymes: To access these resources, go to www. Also, see pages xvi—xx for more details. Please consult your McGraw-Hill representative for policies, prices, and availability as some restrictions may apply.
In addition, each chapter contains a detailed outline, purpose, objectives, key terms, summary, re- sources for audiovisual materials and computer software. Anderson, Ohio Northern University. Bybee, Utah Valley State College. Armando A. Englert, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Rob Fitch, Wenatchee Valley College. Greding, Jr. Paul A. Haefner, Jr. Dan F. Ippolito, Anderson University. Latson, Lipscomb Univer- sity; Standley E.
Lewis, St. Paul C. Morrissey, Hofstra University; Tim R. Mullican, Dakota Wesleyan University; G. Steven Murphree, Belmont University. Maha Nagarajan, Wilberforce University. John F. Mohammad A Rana, St. Rundquist, Montana State University-Northern.
Scully, Towson University; Richard H. Shippee, Vin- cennes University; Sandra E. Smith, Mercer University; Gregory B. Swanson, Ohio Northern University. John Tibbs, University of Montana; S. Twitty, Howard University. Dwina W. Robert W. Yost, Indiana University-Purdue University.
David D. Zeigler, University of North Carolina, Pembroke. The publication of a text requires the efforts of many people. We are grateful for the work of our colleagues at McGraw-Hill, who have shown extraordinary patience, skill, and commitment to this text. Marge Kemp, Sponsoring Editor, has helped shape Zoology from its earliest planning stages.
Donna kept us on schedule and the production moving in the plethora of directions that are nearly unimaginable to us. Kay Brimeyer served as our project manager. We are grateful for her skilled coordination of the many tasks involved with the publishing of this edition of Zoology.
Finally, but most importantly, we wish to extend apprecia- tion to our families for their patience and encouragement. Janice A. Miller lived with this text through many months of planning and writing. Our wives, Carol A. Miller and Jane R.
Harley, have been supportive throughout the revision process. We dedicate this book to the memory of Jan, and to our families. The nervous system helps to communicate, integrate, and coordinate the functions of the various organs and organ systems in the animal body.
Information is transmitted between neurons directly electrically or by means of chemi- cals called neurotransmitters. The evolution of the nervous system in invertebrates has led to the elaboration of orga- nized nerve cords and the centralization of responses in the anterior portion of the animal.
The vertebrate nervous system consists of the central nervous system, made up of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, composed of the nerves in the rest of the body.
Sensory receptors or organs permit an animal to detect changes in its body, as well as in objects and events in the world around it. Sensory receptors collect information that is then passed to the nervous system, which determines, evaluates, and initiates an appro- priate response. Sensory receptors initiate nerve impulses by opening channels in sensory neuron plasma membranes, depolarizing the membranes, and causing a generator potential. Receptors differ in the nature of the environmental stimulus that triggers an eventual nerve impulse.
The nature of its sensory receptors gives each animal species a unique perception of its body and environment. The two forms of communication in an animal that integrate body functions to maintain homeostasis are: Understanding these processes helps us to know how animals func- tion and why animals are united with other forms of life from the evolutionary and eco- logical perspectives.
Chapter 1 examines some of these unifying themes and sets the stage for the evolutionary and ecological perspectives that are developed throughout this book. An understanding of the cell as the fundamental unit of life is key to understand- ing life on this planet. One of the common func- tions of all cells is reproduction. Reproduc- tion may involve individual cells within a multicellular organism, a single-celled organ- ism, or the formation of single reproductive cells in multicelluar organisms.
The processes involved in cellular reproduction, and the processes involved in determining the char- acteristics of the new cells and organisms that are produced, are based on common biologi- cal themes. Chapters 2 and 3 present cell structure and inheritance as an important, unifying framework within which biologists approach the diversity of organisms. Principles of inheritance explain not only why offspring resemble their parents, but also why variation exists within populations.
This variation is a key to understanding evo- lution. All organisms have an evolutionary history, and evolution helps us to understand the life-shaping experiences that all organisms share. Chapter 4 explores the work of pioneers of evolutionary theory, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace, and how their work forms the nucleus for modern evolutionary theory.
A fundamental unity of life also oc- curs at the environmental level. Only by studying the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment can we appreciate the need for preserving resources for all organisms.
Photo top: Examples of evolutionary adaptation and ecological interdependence abound in the animal king- dom. This cleaning shrimp Periclimenes yucatani- cus seeks refuge within the cnidocyte stinging cells laden tentacles of the giant anemone Condylactis gigantea. Midwest and eastern United States Habitat: Limestone caves are used for winter hibernation; summer habitat data are scarce but include under bridges, in old buildings, under bark, and in hollow trees Number remaining: Males usually forage in densely wooded areas at treetop height.
Zoology (International Edition)
In summer, it is absent south of Ten- nessee; in winter, it is absent from Michigan, Ohio, and northern Indi- ana, where suitable habitats caves and mines are unknown. Mating takes place at night on the ceilings of large rooms near cave entrances. Hibernating colonies disperse in late March, and most of the bats migrate to more northern habitats for the summer.
However, some males remain in the hibernating area during this period and wander from cave to cave. Birth occurs in June in widely scattered colonies consisting of about 25 females and their young.
Each female bears a single offspring. Migration to the wintering caves usually begins in August. The bats replace depleted fat reserves from the migration during September. Feeding then declines until mid-November, when the population en- ters a state of hibernation. The hibernating bats form large, compact clusters. Each individual hangs by its feet from the ceiling. The decline of the Indiana bat is attributed to commercialization of roosting caves, wanton destruction by vandals, disturbances caused by increased numbers of spelunkers and bat banding programs, the use of bats as laboratory animals, and possibly, insecticide poisoning.
To date, primary conservation efforts have focused on installing gates across cave entrances to control access.
Some gating has already been accomplished on federal and state lands. The National Speleological Society and the American Society of Mammologists are working together to preserve this species of bat. The aschelminths are seven phyla grouped for convenience. No organs are developed for gas ex- change or circulation.
A cuticle that may be molted covers the body. Only longitudinal muscles are often present in the body wall. The majority of rotifers inhabit freshwater.
The head of these ani- mals bears a unique ciliated corona used for locomotion and food capture. Males are smaller than females and unknown in some species.
Females may develop parthenogenetically. Kinorhynchs are minute worms living in marine habitats. Their bodies are comprised of 13 zonites, which have cuticular scales, plates, and spines.
Nematodes live in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Many are parasitic and of medical and agricultural importance. They are all elongate, slender, and circular in cross section. Two sexes are present.
Nematomorpha are threadlike and free-living in freshwater. They lack a digestive system. Acanthocephalans are also known as spiny-headed worms because of their spiny proboscis. All are endoparasites in vertebrates. The phylum Loricifera was described in These microscopic animals have a spiny head and thorax, and they live in gravel in marine environments. The phylum Priapulida contains only 16 known species of cucumber- shaped, wormlike animals that live buried in the bottom sand and mud in marine habitats.
Discuss how the structure of the body wall places limitations on shape changes in nematodes. What characteristics set the Nematomorpha apart from the Nema- toda? What characteristics do the Nematomorpha share with the Nematoda?
In what respects are the kinorhynchs like nematodes? How are they like rotifers? How are nematodes related to the rotifers? What environmental factors appear to trigger the production of mictic females in monogonont rotifers? Exercise 12 The Pseudocoelomate Body Plan: Aschelminths mastax p.
Zoology, Fifth Edition I. Biological Principles 1. An understanding of evolutionary processes is very important in zoology because evolu- tion explains the family relationships among animals and how the great variety of ani- mals arose. An understanding of ecological principles is very important in zoology because it helps zoologists to understand the interrelationships among individual animals and groups of animals.
Understanding ecological principles also helps zoologists to understand how human interference threatens animal populations and the human environment. Zoology Gr. It is no wonder that zoologists usually specialize in one or more of the subdisciplines of zoology.
They may study particular functional, structural, or ecological aspects of one or more animal groups table 1. One large group, the cichlids, is found in Africa 1, species , Central and South America species , India 3 species and North America 1 species.
Ichthyologists have described a wide variety of feeding habits in cichlids. All cichlids have two pairs of jaws. The mouth jaws are used for scraping or nipping food, and the throat jaws are used for crushing or macerating food before it is swallowed. Many cichlids mouth brood their young. A female takes eggs into her mouth after the eggs are spawned. Zoologists are working around the world to understand and preserve the enormous diversity.
Evolutionary processes are remarkable for their relative simplicity, yet they have had awe- some effects on life-forms. These processes have resulted in an estimated 4 to 30 million species of organisms living today. Only 1. Many more ex- isted in the past and have become extinct. Zoologists must un- derstand evolutionary processes if they are to understand what an animal is and how it originated.
It is the source of animal diversity, and it ex- plains family relationships within animal groups. Charles Darwin published convincing evidence of evolution in and proposed a mechanism that could explain evolutionary change. Since that time, biologists have become convinced that evolution occurs.
Understanding how the diversity of animal structure and function arose is one of the many challenges faced by zoologists. For example, the cichlid scale eaters of Africa feed on the scales of other cichlids.
They approach a prey cichlid from behind and bite a mouthful of scales from the body. Cichlids of Africa exist in an amazing variety of color pat- terns, habitats, and body forms. Females of the species brood developing eggs in her mouth to protect them from predators. Michio Hori of Kyoto University found that there were two body forms within the species Perissodus micolepis.
One form had a mouth that was asymmetrically curved to the right and the other form had a mouth that was asymmetri- cally curved to the left.
The variety of color patterns within the species Topheus duboisi has also been explained in an evolutionary context. Different color patterns arose as a result of the isolation of populations among sheltering rock piles separated by expanses of sandy bottom. Zoologists have worked for many years to understand the evolutionary relationships among the hundreds of cichlid species.
Groups of individuals are more closely related if they share more of their genetic material DNA with each other than with individuals in other groups. You are more closely related to your brother or sister than to your cousin for the same reason.
Because DNA determines most of your physical traits, you will also more closely resemble your brother or sister. That time period is long from the perspec- tive of a human lifetime, but it is a blink of the eye from the per- spective of evolutionary time.
Even more remarkably, zoologists now believe that most of these species arose much more recently. Lake Victoria nearly dried out 14, years ago, and most of the original Victorian species would have been lost in the process.
Although Karl von Linne — is primarily remembered for collecting and classifying plants, his system of naming—binomial nomenclature—has also been adopted for animals. A two-part name describes each kind of or- ganism. Each kind of organism—for example, the cichlid scale-eater Perissodus microlepis—is recognized throughout the world by its two-part name. Nimbochromis livingstonii is a mouth- brooding species.
These lakes have cichlid populations that have been traced by zoologists to an ancestry that is ap- proximately , years old. Cichlid populations originated in Lake Tanganyika and then spread to the other two lakes. An Evolutionary and Ecological Perspective 5 species are more closely related than organisms in the same genus, and organisms in the same genus are more closely related than or- ganisms in the same family, and so on.
When zoologists classify an- imals into taxonomic groupings they are making hypotheses about the extent to which groups of animals share DNA, even when they study variations in traits like jaw structure, color patterns, and behavior, because these kinds of traits ultimately are based on the genetic material.
Evolutionary theory has affected zoology like no other single theory. It has impressed scientists with the fundamental unity of all of biology. As the cichlids of Africa illustrate, evolutionary concepts hold the key to understanding why animals look and act in their unique ways, live in their particular geographical regions and habitats, and share characteristics with other related animals.
Throughout our history, humans have de- pended on animals, and that dependence too often has led to ex- ploitation. We depend on animals for food, medicines, and clothing.
Miller and harley zoology book 4th edition pdf
We also depend on animals in other, more subtle ways. This dependence may not be noticed until human activities upset the delicate ecological balances that have evolved over hundreds of thousands of years. Because many of the cichlids fed on algae, the algae in the lake grew uncontrolled. When algae died and decayed, much of the lake became depleted of its oxygen.
This practice has resulted in severe deforestation around Lake Victoria. The resulting runoff of soil into the lake has caused further degradation. One-half of the forests on the Tanzania side of the lake are deforested to maintain a meager agricultural subsistence for human populations.
The problems, however, are most acute in developing countries, which are striving to attain the same wealth as industrialized nations.
Miller and harley zoology book 4th edition pdf
Two problems, global overpopulation and the exploitation of world resources, are the focus of our eco- logical concerns. Population Global overpopulation is at the root of virtually all other environ- mental problems. It is estimated that the world population will reach As the human population grows, the dis- parity between the wealthiest and poorest nations is likely to increase. World Resources Human overpopulation is stressing world resources.
Although new technologies continue to increase food production, most food is produced in industrialized countries that already have a high per-capita food consumption. Maximum oil production is ex- pected to continue in this millennium.
Continued use of fossil fu- els adds more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Deforestation of large areas of the world results from continued demand for forest prod- ucts and fuel. This trend contributes to the greenhouse effect, causes severe regional water shortages, and results in the extinc- tion of many plant and animal species, especially in tropical forests.
Nature also has intrinsic value that is just as im- portant as its provision of human resources.They approach a prey cichlid from behind and bite a mouthful of scales from the body. Groups of individuals are more closely related if they share more of their genetic material DNA with each other than with individuals in other groups. Sensory receptors or organs permit an animal to detect changes in its body, as well as in objects and events in the world around it.
Show related SlideShares at end. Understanding ecological principles also helps zoologists to understand how human interference threatens animal populations and the human environment. This change is in response to user requests for a text that is less expensive and more useful in one-semester course formats.
What major biological concepts, in addition to evolution and ecology, are unifying principles within the two disciplines? For example, the cichlid scale eaters of Africa feed on the scales of other cichlids. Different cell types organize into structural and functional units called tissues, organs, and organ systems.